Thursday, September 26, 2013

32-bit and 64-bit

32-bit and 64-bit

Will this 32-bit software run on my 64-bit operating system? Or
Will this 64-bit software run on my computer?
If you've asked these questions then this tutorial should help you to understand the concepts of 32-bit and 64-bit computing. We'll look at your computer system as three parts: the hardware, the operating system and the application programs.

32-bit versus 64-bit

As the number of bits increases there are two important benefits.
More bits mean that data can be processed in larger chunks which also means more accurately.
More bits mean our system can point to or address a larger number of locations in physical memory.
32-bit systems were once desired because they could address (point to) 4 Gigabytes (GB) of memory in one go. Some modern applications require more than 4 GB of memory to complete their tasks so 64-bit systems are now becoming more attractive because they can potentially address up to 4 billion times that many locations.
Since 1995, when Windows 95 was introduced with support for 32-bit applications, most of the software and operating system code has been 32-bit compatible.
Here is the problem, while most of the software available today is 32-bit; the processors we buy are almost all 64-bit.

So how long will the transition from 32-bit to 64-bit systems take?

The main issue is that your computer works from the hardware such as the processor (or CPU, as it is called), through the operating system (OS), to the highest level which your applications is. So the computer hardware is designed first, the matching operating systems are developed, and finally the applications appear.
We can look back at the transition from 16-bit to 32-bit Windows on 32-bit processors. It took 10 years (from 1985 to 1995) to get a 32-bit operating system and even now, more than 15 years later, there are many people still using 16-bit Windows applications on older versions of Windows.
The hardware and software vendors learnt from the previous transition, so the new operating systems have been released at the same time as the new processors. The problem this time is that there haven't been enough 64-bit applications. Ten years after the PC's first 64-bit processors, installs of 64-bit Windows are only now exceeding those of 32-bit Windows. Further evidence of this inertia is that you are probably reading this tutorial because you are looking to install your first 64-bit software.

Your computer system in three parts

32-bit and 64-bit

Now we'll look at those three components of your system. In simple terms they are three layers with the processor or CPU as the central or lowest layer and the application as the outermost or highest layer as shown below:

To run a 64-bit operating system you need support from the lower level: the 64-bit CPU.
To run a 64-bit application you need support from all lower levels: the 64-bit OS and the 64-bit CPU.
This simplification will be enough for us to look what happens when we mix the 32-bit and 64-bit parts. But if you want to understand the issue more deeply then you will also need to consider the hardware that supports the CPU and the device drivers that allow the OS and the applications to interface with the system hardware.

What 32-bit and 64-bit combinations are compatible and will work together?

This is where we get to the practicalities and can start answering common questions.
The general rule is that 32-bit will run on a lower level 64-bit component but 64-bit does not run on a lower level 32-bit component:
A 32-bit OS will run on a 32-bit or 64-bit processor without any problem.
A 32-bit application will run on a 32-bit or 64-bit OS without any problem.
But a 64-bit application will only run on a 64-bit OS and a 64-bit OS will only run on a 64-bit processor.
These two tables illustrate the same rule:

Table 1 — What is compatible if I have a 32-bit CPU?
Processor (CPU)32-bit32-bit32-bit32-bit
Operating System (OS)32-bit32-bit64-bit64-bit
Application Program32-bit64-bit32-bit64-bit

Table 2 — What is compatible if I have a 64-bit CPU?
Processor (CPU)64-bit64-bit64-bit64-bit
Operating System (OS)64-bit64-bit32-bit32-bit
Application Program64-bit32-bit32-bit64-bit

The main reason that 32-bit will always run on 64-bit is that the 64-bit components have been designed to work that way. So the newer 64-bit systems are backward-compatible with the 32-bit systems (which is the main reason most of us haven't moved to 64-bit software).
An example of backward compatibility is Windows 64-bit. It has software called WOW64 that provides compatibility by emulating a 32-bit system. One important point that is made in that article is that it is not possible to install a 32-bit device driver on a 64-bit operating system. This is because device drivers run in parallel to the operating system. The emulation is done at the operating system level so it is available to the higher layer, the application, but it is not available to the device driver which runs on the same level.

Hardware virtualization is the exception to the rule

Another question many people have is whether a 32-bit system can run 64-bit software. As more people are looking to use 64-bit Windows they want to try it out on their existing systems. So we are getting more questions about whether they can run it on their 32-bit processor or under their 32-bit OS.
Following the general rule, we would expect that you cannot run 64-bit software on a 32-bit system. Except that there is one exception called virtualization.
Virtualization creates a virtual system within the actual system. Virtualization can be achieved in hardware or software but it works best if the virtual machine is created in the system hardware. The guest operating system is not aware that there is a host operating system already running. This is the way that a 64-bit operating system can think that it is running on 64-bit hardware without being aware that there is a 32-bit operating system in the mix.
Tables 3 and 4 illustrate the result. Provided that the virtual machine can actually be created and isolated by the vitalizing software then the host OS is effectively removed from the equation, so I've grayed it out. We can now apply the general rules for a non-virtualized system to the three remaining layers.

Table 3 — What is compatible if I have a 32-bit CPU and software
Processor (CPU)32-bit32-bit32-bit32-bit
Host Operating System32-bit32-bit32-bit32-bit
Guest Operating System32-bit32-bit64-bit64-bit
Application Program32-bit64-bit32-bit64-bit

Table 4 — What is compatible if I have a 64-bit CPU and software
Processor (CPU)64-bit64-bit64-bit64-bit
Host Operating System32/64-bit32/64-bit32/64-bit32/64-bit
Guest Operating System64-bit64-bit32-bit32-bit
Application Program64-bit32-bit32-bit64-bit
Before you hurry away to try running 64-bit in a virtual machine, you must check that your computer BIOS supports hardware virtualization. If it does not then hardware virtualization will not work even if the CPU does support it.

Emulation of the 64-bit CPU is not an option

All the feasible configurations that we have looked at so far have the processors (CPUs) running software that use the instruction set that is native to that processor. Running 64-bit software on a 32-bit processor doesn't work because the 64-bit instructions are not native to a 32-bit processor. But what if I could emulate a 64-bit processor using 32-bit software?
It is theoretically possible but practically impossible to emulate a 64-bit processor while running software on a 32-bit processor. Even if you can get non-native 64-bit emulation to work, the virtual machine that duplicates a 64-bit CPU would run very slowly because every 64-bit instruction has to be trapped and handled by the emulator. 64-bit memory pointers also have to be converted to work within the 32-bit address space.
Furthermore, my understanding is that the x86 (32-bit) processors used in PCs and Apple Macs are not able to completely emulate the x64 (64-bit) instruction set. Some 64-bit instructions cannot be trapped by the emulator. This causes the system to crash when the x86 processor tried to run those x64 instructions.

Answers to common questions about 32-bit and 64-bit systems

Will a 64-bit CPU run a 32-bit program on a 64-bit version of an OS?
Yes it will. 64-bit systems are backward-compatible with their 32-bit counterparts.

Will a 64-bit OS run a 32-bit application on a 64-bit processor?
Yes it will. Again, this is because of backward compatibility.

Can 64-bit applications contain 32-bit code?
Yes, many times 64-bit software will contain portions of 32-bit code.
Similarly 32-bit software (usually very old programs) can have some code in 16-bit which is why those 32-bit applications will usually fail to run properly on a 64-bit OS.

Can 16-bit applications or code run on 64-bit systems?
No, as we said previously. 16-bit code will NOT run on 64-bit OS because the designers did not provide backward-compatibility. This is one reason why some 32-bit programs will not work on 64-bit operating systems.

Can a 64-bit CPU with a 32-bit host OS run a virtual machine (VM) for a 64-bit guest OS?
Yes. It all depends upon the level of virtualization.
With software virtualization it is hardly likely to work, or if it does work it may be very slow.
Hardware virtualization will need to be supported by the CPU (e.g. with Intel-VT or AMD-V) and the BIOS.

Answers to common questions about 32- and 64-bit Windows

Can I run Windows 2000 and Windows XP on a 64-bit CPU, and use old software?
Yes, a 32-bit OS (Windows 2000 or XP) will run on a 64-bit processor. You should also be able to run older 32-bit software on a 64-bit OS.

Is a Windows Vista or Windows 7 license key valid for both 32-bit and 64-bit versions?
Yes, unless you have an OEM version. If it was installed on your computer when you bought it and you only have one Windows disk then it is almost certainly an OEM version and you will have to buy the other bit version if you want it. If you have two disks, one for 32-bit Windows and one for 64-bit Windows, then you have a non-OEM version so you get to choose which bit version you will use without having to buy another license. 
Remember, if you have only bought one license then, even if you have both bit versions on disk, you are only licensed to install and run one version on one computer.

How do I migrate  my 32-bit system to 64-bit Windows?
There is no upgrade path from 32-bit to 64-bit Windows only from 64-bit Windows. You will almost certainly have to do a clean install of your 64-bit operating system, copy back your data files, and reinstall your 32-bit applications.
If you want to keep your old install then you can try dual booting or virtualization.

How do I run 32-bit software once I have installed 64-bit Windows?
Windows 7 64-bit provides a 32-bit compatibility mode called WOW32 (Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit) that should run most if not all your applications..
If you have 32-bit application you want to run from the Command Prompt then you need to use the WOW64 version of cmd.exe. At the Start Menu select Run and enter the following command. Note that the %systemroot% variable points to your Windows folder so this will work even if Windows is not installed on C: drive:

If your application won't run under Windows 64-bit then try XP Mode, Windows Virtual PC, or other virtualization solution. Be aware that XP Mode reduces your system security and so it should be used as a last resort.

How can I tell if my application is 32-bit or 64-bit?
There are a number of indicators of the bit type for your program but they are not definitive as you will see if you use guidelines like the following.
Windows installs your programs to these folders on your system drive:
o '\Program Files' for 64-bit programs
o '\Program Files (x86)' for 32-bit programs
In Task Manager, 32-bit processes will usually have a suffix of '*32' and 64-bit processes will not.

The reason that these indicators cannot be relied upon relates to the way 64-bit Windows installs software. 64-bit install packages usually install 64-bit applications or a mixture of 32- and 64-bit components but can even install only 32-bit components.

What determines where a component is installed is the registry setting for that component rather than the setting for the install package. Windows also assumes that all components are 32-bit unless told otherwise. This means that a 64-bit component not flagged as 64-bit will install to 32-bit folders and 32-bit registry keys but will execute as 64-bit.

What are the differences between Windows 32-bit and 64-bit?
The  physical  and logical differences between each version of desktop Windows as shown in Table 5. This table illustrates the progressive improvement of Windows 64-bit and indicates that Windows has a long way to go before it exhausts the capabilities of 64-bit processors.
Many of the limits in the 64-bit versions of Windows are design choices rather than limitations of the 64-bit CPUs. The number of physical processors is the most obvious as Windows Server editions support many more.
Hardware is also limited by design. For example, while 64-bit AMD and Intel CPUs use 64-bit  memory pointers, the supporting chipsets only use a 52-bit physical address space (4 Petabytes) and a 48-bit virtual memory space (256 Terabytes). This is presently more than sufficient because Windows 7 64-bit only allows 192 GB of physical memory and 16 Terabytes (44-bits) of virtual memory.

Table 5: Physical and Logical limits for Windows Versions

Numbers in parentheses indicate extended settings that are not the default and require compatible hardware

Version Bits:326432643264
Physical Processors222222
Logical Processors3264326432256
System Cache1 GB1,024 GB1 (2) GB1,024 GB1 (2) GB1,024 GB
Physical Memory4 GB128 GB4 GB128 GB4 GB192 GB
Virtual Memory4 GB16,384 GB4 GB16,384 GB4 GB16,384 GB
Kernel1 (2) GB8 GB2 GB8 GB2 GB8 GB
User Process:
Physical Memory2 (3) GB2 (4) GB2 (3) GB8 GB2 (4) GB8 GB
Virtual Memory2 (3) GB2 (8,192) GB2 (3) GB2 (8,192) GB2 (4) GB2 (8,192) GB


Monday, September 16, 2013

speed up your computer - Windows 7

Using Windows ReadyBoost to Increase Performance in  Windows 7


What is ReadyBoost

ReadyBoost is a feature of Windows Vista and Windows 7 and windows 8 that uses a USB flash drive for caching.  This allows Windows Vista or Windows 7 to service random disk reads with performance that is typically 80-100 times faster than random reads from traditional hard drives.

For a USB flash drive to be compatible, it must conform to the following requirements:

 The device should have an access time of 1 ms or less.
 The capacity of the USB flash drive must be at least 256MB (250 after formatting).
 The device must be capable of 2.5 MB/s read speeds for 4 KB random reads spread uniformly across the     entire device and 1.75 MB/s write speeds for 512KB random writes spread uniformly across the device
 The device must have at least 235MB of free space

ReadyBoost supported features/capacity:

 On Windows Vista, the largest cache file size is 4GB
 On Windows 7, the largest cache file size is 256GB (can span up to 8 flash drives).
 NTFS, FAT32 and exFAT are supported.
 The recommended amount of flash memory to use for Windows ReadyBoost acceleration is one to three      times the amount of random access memory (RAM) installed in your computer.

To turn ReadyBoost on or off

Plug a flash drive  into your computer.

In the Autoplay dialog box, under General options, click Speed up my system.

In the Properties dialog box, click the ReadyBoost tab, and then do one of the following:

To turn ReadyBoost off, click Do not use this device.

To use the maximum available space on the flash drive  for ReadyBoost, click Dedicate this device to ReadyBoost. Windows will leave any files already stored on the device, but it'll use the rest to boost your system speed.

To use less than the maximum available space on the device for ReadyBoost, click Use this device, and then move the slider to choose the amount of available space on the device you want to use.

Click OK.

Windows ReadyBoost

Move the slider to choose how much space you want to designate for boosting your system speed.

Friday, September 6, 2013

Windows 7 Hard Disk Check

Hard Drive

Sometimes your computer is noticeably slower or programs "hang" when you access certain files. This problem might occur because there are errors on your hard disk drive.

You can troubleshoot the problem by using the Disk Check tool in Windows 7. Disk Check can identify and automatically correct file system errors and make sure that you can continue to load and write data from the hard disk. You can use Disk Check in Windows 7 not only for local hard drives, but also for removable media such as USB memory sticks or memory cards.

  Please make sure that you close all open programs and files before you start the disk check. 

1. Click the Start Windows icon. 

2. Click Open computer

3. Right-click the drive that you want to check. 

4. Click Properties >  Click the Tools tab >  Click the Check now button.

5. In the Check Disk <disk name> window, select the automatically fix file system errors check box.

Note If you want to perform a detailed test of the hard drive, you can select the Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors check box. You should do that in the justified suspicion of existing hardware error in any case. But please note that the operation can then take a long time. For a first routine check, we recommend that you do not select this option.
6. Click Start.

7. If the drive that you want to check is currently in use and it is your system drive, you will see a dialog box with a warning message. In this case, click Schedule disk check.

8. Exit all open programs, and then restart your computer. The checking will start automatically before next Windows startup and display the results when completed.

9. If you are not checking the system drive, you do not have to turn off the computer. However, the selected drive may also be in use. In this case, you receive a message. After you have saved all files and close all open programs, click Force a dismount

13. The checking starts immediately. After it is completed, the results will be displayed. 

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

No sound in Windows

No sound in Windows

Check hardware

Many sound problems are caused by hardware that isn't set up properly. This step covers checking your sound card, plugging cables into the correct locations, making sure the hardware has power, and checking the volume.

1. Check your sound card

Check to make sure your computer has a sound card, or sound processor, and it's working properly.
1. Open Device Manager by clicking Start, pointing to Control Panel, clicking System, clicking the               Hardware tab, and then, clicking Device Manager.
2. Double-click Sound, video and game controllers to expand that category. If a sound card is listed, you         have one installed. If no sound card is listed, check the information that came with your computer to see         if there's supposed to be a sound card installed. If there should be a sound card installed, you'll need to         install one according to the manufacturer's instructions.


If you think you have a sound card installed but you don't see it under the Sound, video and game controllers category, expand the Other devices category and check the devices listed there.
Laptops don't usually have sound cards. Instead, they have integrated sound processors, which appear         in the same category in Device Manager.
If there's a yellow question mark next to the name of the sound card in Device Manager, there might be a problem.
1. Right-click the name of the sound card, and then click Properties.
2. Click the General tab, and then look in the Device status box to identify problems with the sound               card.
If there's a problem, you might need a new driver for your sound card. For more information, see Step 3: Update drivers.

2. Check if the cables are connected properly

Speakers and headphones

If you're using external speakers, make sure that they are correctly connected to the computer.
Many computers have three or more jacks that connect to a sound card or sound processor, including a microphone jack, line-in jack, and line-out jack. Your speakers should be plugged in to the line-out jack. If you're not sure which jack this is, try plugging your speakers in to each of the jacks to see if any of them produce sound.

Picture of microphone jack, line-in jack, and line-out jack

Microphone, line-in, and line-out jacks on a typical computer
If you're using headphones, make sure they aren't plugged into the line out (headphone) jack of your sound card or computer (unless you want to be listening with headphones rather than speakers). When you plug in headphones, most computers automatically cut the sound to the speakers.

USB audio devices

If you’re using a USB audio device and also have an internal audio device installed, try these basic troubleshooting steps:
Unplug the USB audio device and restart your audio program. Test for sound using the internal audio             device. If you hear sound, there might be problems with the USB audio driver or with Windows not               using the USB audio device as the default audio device.
Close all audio programs, unplug the USB audio device, wait for the USB driver to be uninstalled (this           should happen fairly quickly), plug the USB audio device back in to the USB port, wait for the driver to         load, and then start the audio program and check for sound.
Check that you have the correct audio device set as the default in Windows and in the program.
Check the audio device manufacturer’s website for updated drivers.

3. Check power and volume

If you have speakers, make sure they're plugged into a working power source and turned on.
Make sure that your speaker volume or headphone volume isn't muted or turned down too low. This is particularly important for laptops, which often have small speakers that can be hard to hear.
1. Click Start, point to Control panel, and then click Sounds and Audio Devices.
2. Under Device volume, move the slider to the right to increase the volume.
        Make sure the Mute checkbox isn't selected.
3. Click Speaker Volume, and make sure the sliders aren't set to Low.


Some laptops have an external volume control on the outside of the case. If you're using a laptop, check the external volume control to make sure it's not turned all the way down.
In some cases you might have several volume controls to check. For example, if you're using Windows Media Player it has its own volume control, Windows has a volume control, and your external speakers have their own volume control. If any of these volume controls are set to their lowest setting, you won't hear any sound.

Update drivers

For Windows to recognize your sound card or sound processor, you need a compatible driver. Most sound cards and sound processors require driver software to work properly. Outdated, incompatible, or damaged sound card drivers can disrupt communication between the computer and the sound card.
If you recently upgraded from one version of Windows to another, it's possible that the current sound card driver was designed for the previous version of Windows. If you've had recent power outages, viruses, or other computer problems, it's possible that the drivers have become damaged. Downloading and installing the latest sound card driver for your sound card can help resolve these types of problems.
Here are three ways to find and install a driver:
Use Windows Update. You might need to set Windows Update to automatically download and install recommended updates. Installing any important, recommended, and optional updates can update system features and other software that might help fix your sound problems.
Install software from the device manufacturer. If your device came with a disc, that disc might               contain software that installs a driver for the device.
Download and install the driver yourself. You can search for a driver on the manufacturer's                     website. Try this if Windows Update can't find a driver for your device and the device didn't come with         software that installs a driver.

Follow the steps below to update drivers.

To automatically update drivers using Windows Update

1. Open Automatic Updates by clicking Start, pointing to Control Panel, and clicking Automatic Updates.
2. Click Automatic, and then select the day and time to download updates.
3. Click Apply.


Windows will automatically download available updates and drivers on the next day and time you selected. Check to see if your sound problems are resolved after that first update takes place.

To download and install a driver yourself

If Windows can't find a driver for your sound card or sound processor, and the device didn't come with driver software, you can look for a driver on the manufacturer's website. Driver updates are often available in the support section of such websites.
To locate the driver, find the manufacturer and model name or number of your sound card, and then visit the Hardware and software vendor contact information website. Once you find your manufacturer, go to its website and locate and download the latest driver for your sound card.
If you can't find the manufacturer and model name or number of your sound card, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then click Run.
2. Type dxdiag, and then click OK.
3. Click the Sound tab.
4. In the Device section, next to Name, copy or write down the name of the device. In the Drivers                section, next to Provider, copy or write down the manufacturer of the device.
5. Click Exit.

Once you know the name and manufacturer of your sound card, you can look for a driver on the device manufacturer's website. Driver updates are often available in the support section of such websites.
If you find an updated driver, follow the installation instructions on the website. Most drivers are self-installing—after you download them, you usually double-click the file to begin the installation, and then the driver installs itself on your computer.

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Windows 8 system requirements

Windows 8

If you want to run Windows 8 on your PC, here's what it takes:

Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster with support for PAE, NX, and SSE2

RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)

Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)

Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM driver

Additional requirements to use certain features:

To use touch, you need a tablet or a monitor that supports multitouch

To access the Windows Store and to download and run apps, you need an active Internet connection and a screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768

To snap apps, you need a screen resolution of at least 1366 x 768

Internet access (ISP fees might apply)

Secure boot requires firmware that supports UEFI v2.3.1 Errata B and has the Microsoft Windows Certification Authority in the UEFI signature database

Some games and programs might require a graphics card compatible with DirectX 10 or higher for optimal performance

Microsoft account required for some features

Watching DVDs requires separate playback software

Windows Media Center license sold separately

BitLocker To Go requires a USB flash drive (Windows 8 Pro only)

BitLocker requires either Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 1.2 or a USB flash drive (Windows 8 Pro only)

Client Hyper-V requires a 64-bit system with second level address translation (SLAT) capabilities and additional 2 GB of RAM (Windows 8 Pro only)

A TV tuner is required to play and record live TV in Windows Media Center (Windows 8 Pro Pack and Windows 8 Media Center Pack only)

Free Internet TV content varies by geography, some content might require additional fees (Windows 8 Pro Pack and Windows 8 Media Center Pack only)




What are the different parts of DirectX?

Direct3D. This helps make three-dimensional animation possible on your computer monitor. Direct3D is designed to provide a powerful link between your computer's video card and software programs that can render three-dimensional (3 D) objects. The faster your computer can process animation, the more realistic the 3 D objects, light, and motion on your monitor will appear to be.

DirectDraw. This helps produce two-dimensional (2 D) visual effects. Your computer's video card and many software programs use DirectDraw to communicate with one another before sending the finished visual image to the monitor. Computer games, 2 D graphics packages, and Windows system features all use DirectDraw.
DirectSound. This boosts the performance of audio effects on your computer and makes many subtle effects in audio mixing and playback possible. It provides a link between software programs and the hardware on your computer. DirectSound provides multimedia software programs, such as games and movies, with hardware acceleration, mixing capabilities, and access to the sound card.

Do I need DirectX?

Yes. DirectX allows you to use multimedia software with complex sounds or moving images. DirectX is included with this version of Windows and with most of the games that require it.

Where can I get DirectX?

DirectX comes standard with this version of Windows, and also comes with most of the games that require it.

Which version of DirectX do I have?

At a minimum on this version of Windows, you have DirectX 10.

To check which version of DirectX you have

1. Open DirectX Diagnostic Tool by clicking the Start button , typing dxdiag in the Search box, and then pressing ENTER.
2. Click the System tab, and then, under System Information, check the version number.

Can I uninstall DirectX?

No. It's an integral part of the Windows operating system and cannot be removed.

To run DirectX Diagnostic Tool

Open DirectX Diagnostic Tool by clicking the Start button  , typing dxdiag in the Search box, and then pressing ENTER.

Using DirectX Diagnostic Tool to diagnose problems

Here are some of the things you should be looking for:

Lack of hardware acceleration. Some programs run very slowly or not at all unless Microsoft DirectDraw or Direct3D hardware acceleration is available. Click the Display tab, and then under DirectX Features, check to see whether DirectDraw, Direct3D, or AGP Texture acceleration is marked Not Available. If so, you might consider upgrading your hardware. You might also need to turn on graphics acceleration.

To turn on graphics acceleration

1. Open Display Settings by clicking the Start button  , clicking Control Panel, clicking Appearance and Personalization, clicking Personalization, and then clicking Display Settings.
2. Click Display Settings, and then click Advanced Settings.
3. Click the Troubleshoot tab, and then click Change Settings.   If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
4. Move the Hardware Acceleration slider to Full.

Devices are not connected. If a joystick or other input device fails to respond, it may not be properly set up. Make sure the device is present on the Input tab of DirectX Diagnostic Tool. If not, reinstall the game controller or input device by unplugging it and then plugging it back in.

Unsigned drivers are present. Microsoft has not tested unsigned drivers for full compatibility with the latest version of DirectX. We recommend that you use drivers that are digitally signed by Microsoft Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL).