Friday, December 13, 2013

UPS Battery Maintenance Tips


Maintain Your UPS Battery and Obtain the Best Performance


UPS Battery Maintenance Tips


As you purchase a new UPS, charge the UPS for a minimum of 12 hours before connecting it to any device. This will provide long life to the battery.

As soon as the UPS is fully charged, connect it to the computer and run it in the backup support. But be careful that you don’t overuse the backup power.

Please remember that the backup power of UPS is just a lifeline which you have to use minimally.

It is advisable to turn the UPS off when you shut down the computer in the night. If you let the UPS run all over night, it will bring down the battery life.

It is sensible to have the shutdown software installed in the UPS. This will shutdown the UPS in a preset time thus prevents the over usage of UPS for computers.

Never, ever overload your UPS by connecting printers, fax machines or scanners to it.

It is very important where you have placed the UPS. Settle it in a perfect place where there will not be an interrupted power supply and poor ventilation.

Make optimum use of the UPS backup power. Do not use the computer till the UPS turns off due to lack of backup power in UPS battery.

Never place your UPS in a place where there will not be proper ventilation. This will overheat the UPS and bring down the life of the UPS battery.

Never connect an external device to the UPS when it runs during the power shutdown.

If you pair up your UPS with a voltage stabilizer, it will double the life of your UPS battery and will also secure your system more.

It is also preferable if you buy a replacement battery cartridge while buying a UPS.


Battery Replacement

UPS Battery Replacement


On an average, the life span of UPS batteries will be 2 years, if maintained well the battery will perform good for 3 years also. If you experience a low backup time, then immediately replace your battery using the warranty given (usually 2 years).

Break the Myth

Break the Myth

It is an absolute myth revolving the usage of UPS that the main switch has to be turned off when the computer is shut down. So, many users tend to immediately switch off the main switch as soon as they shut down the computer. It is always fine to leave the main switch on, even if the computer is shut down. This will enable the UPS to gather enough power for providing the backup support. 



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Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Troubleshooting Computer RAM Memory



What is RAM

What is RAM

Random Access Memory(RAM) is a way for your computer to store temporary data that it is likely to need soon. Other ways that computers store data are through a cache or storage. Storage, often wrongly referred to as memory, is permanent data stored on a hard drive or solid state drive. A CPU cache is a small amount of memory that is stored right on the CPU chip. The cache is for data that is used very frequently. Both the RAM and CPU cache are temporary data stores that are cleared when your computer is turned off.
Memory problems are less common than many other computer problems because memory sticks have no moving parts so have fewer points of failure. However, due to this many RAM problems are misdiagnosed. Memory usually will last longer than other computer components so manufacturers offer warranties longer than most other computer parts. If you buy brand name memory it will likely have a lifetime warranty

Symptoms of a RAM problem

  • . You turn on your computer and it runs fine. You go about your normal tasks and notice that your computer performance decreases. By lunch time the load times of a typical website seem to be measured in minutes. Does the problem occur not just with internet websites, but also with running local programs? This type of gradual deterioration of PC performance, especially with memory intensive programs, may be caused by a RAM problem.
  •  Does your computer restart randomly when you are in the middle of something? Your computer may just have booted and begins to load your desktop and then immediately reboots. It may freeze up sporadically. This could be a sign of faulty RAM.
  •  Your screen flashes a blue screen with white text before restarting. Blue Screen errors can be one of the most annoying things to happen to your computer because you don't have a chance to read the error message. Many things can cause this problem and bad memory is one of them.
  •  Have you found that files are randomly corrupted? This may happen with files that you frequently access and save. RAM issues can cause this problem or worse. The file structure of your hard drive may slowly go downhill and become unbootable.
  •  Your attempts to install a new program repeatedly fail for an unknown reason. Could be a RAM problem. You try to reinstall the operating system, but keep getting odd error messages. If this follows number four above, it is almost a sure sign of bad memory.

Other possible causes of  problem

A hard drive problem can cause many of the symptoms listed above. You can run a utility called CHKDSK by pressing the windows button and the “R” button at the same time and then typing CHKDSK and pressing enter. Alternatively, you can click on Computer, right click the drive you intend to scan, click Properties, then the Tools tab, and click Check now. Note you will need to restart your computer. Also, be aware this may take an extended amount of time to finish running. If you hear your hard drive making lots of noise during normal operation, it may be the cause of the problems. Defragmenting your drive every few months is a good idea as well.

One additional cause could be a virus. Note that many people automatically assume any problem with their computer is caused by a virus. Many large retail repair stores frequently misdiagnose problems as viruses as well. Make sure you have a good anti-virus program and be sure to run scans on a regular basis.

.

Checking and Verifying RAM Problems

  •  First, we need to open the side cover of your computer. To learn the right procedure and the safety precautions, 
  •  Have your computer AVR turn off and the system power cable detached. Locate where the RAM modules are. Remove then by gently pressing down the notch handles on the sides of the RAM socket.
  •  Turn your computer on. There should be a continuous beeping. This is normal as it is a computer’s way of saying that the RAM(s) is missing. Now turn your computer off with the power cable unplugged (because there is a standby power of 5V in the system), put back the RAM to the first slot (nearest to where the CPU is located).
  •  Turn your computer back on. If you will still hear a continuous beeping sound, then that would mean that your RAM is defective or your slot may be defective or dirty. To check this, just remove the RAM for the first slot and put it in the second slot. Turn on the system unit and observe. If the beeping sound is gone, then your slot may be dirty or defective. If you got more than 1 RAM, individually check the RAM to test on the slots.

After you have confirmed which RAM or slot is defective, we need to do some fixes. Normally if a RAM is defective, we just have to replace it with a new module.. So here are some things you can do to make some simple fixes.

Cleaning The RAM

1. Get a rubber eraser and a small paintbrush.
2. Rest the RAM on the table or any clean flat surface with your fingers supporting the RAM on the sides.
3. Gently rub the eraser on the gold colored edges until it is clear and brilliant.
4. Brush the shredding with a paint brush.
5. Clean the other side of the RAM.
6. In some instances grime like substances accumulate in the gold edges of the RAM, this can be removed     by spraying it with an instrument detergent.

Cleaning the Memory Slot

1. Memory slots can hardly be cleaned. That’s why it is coated with gold just like the edges of the RAM to    protect is against tarnishing. Simple brushing the slots can and will clean it effectively.

2. The second is a method of cleaning the RAM slot is to use a piece of flat plastic (an old unused credit        card will do) and a piece of paper. Fold the paper around the credit card and plug it in the ram slots. Brush    the slot after the cleanup.

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Monday, December 2, 2013

Best Keyboard Shortcuts

Getting used to using your keyboard exclusively and leaving your mouse behind will make you much more efficient at performing any task on any Windows system.Use the following keyboard shortcuts every day:

Keyboard Shortcuts

[Alt] and [Esc] Switch between running applications
[Alt] and letter Select menu item by underlined letter
[Ctrl] and [Esc] Open Program Menu
[Ctrl] and [F4] Close active document or group windows (does not work with some applications)
[Alt] and [F4] Quit active application or close current window
[Alt] and [-] Open Control menu for active document
Ctrl] Lft., Rt. arrow Move cursor forward or back one word
Ctrl] Up, Down arrow Move cursor forward or back one paragraph
[F1] Open Help for active application
Windows+M Minimize all open windows
Shift+Windows+M Undo minimize all open windows
Windows+F1 Open Windows Help
Windows+Tab Cycle through the Taskbar buttons
Windows+Break Open the System Properties dialog box
ALT + Tab = Switch between windows
ALT, Space, X = Maximize window
CTRL + Shift + Esc = Task Manager
Windows key + Break = System properties
Windows key + F = Search
Windows key + D = Hide/Display all windows
CTRL + C = copy
CTRL + X = cut
CTRL + V = paste

Also don't forget about the "Right-click" key next to the right Windows key on your keyboard. Using the arrows and that key can get just about anything done once you've opened up any program

Accessibility  shortcuts


Right SHIFT for eight seconds........ Switch FilterKeys on and off.
Left ALT +left SHIFT +PRINT SCREEN....... Switch High Contrast on and off.
Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK....... Switch MouseKeys on and off.
SHIFT....... five times Switch StickyKeys on and off.
NUM LOCK...... for five seconds Switch ToggleKeys on and off.

     

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Type the following commands in your Run Box (Windows Key + R) or Start Run

cmd = Command Prompt
compmgmt.msc = Computer Management
dhcpmgmt.msc = DHCP Management
dnsmgmt.msc = DNS Management
services.msc = Services
eventvwr = Event Viewer
dsa.msc = Active Directory Users and Computers
dssite.msc = Active Directory Sites and Services
devmgmt.msc = Device Manager
msinfo32 = System Information
cleanmgr = Disk Cleanup
ntbackup = Backup or Restore Wizard (Windows Backup Utility)
mmc = Microsoft Management Console
excel = Microsoft Excel (If Installed)
msaccess = Microsoft Access (If Installed)
powerpnt = Microsoft PowerPoint (If Installed)
winword = Microsoft Word (If Installed)
frontpg = Microsoft FrontPage (If Installed)
notepad = Notepad
wordpad = WordPad
calc = Calculator
msmsgs = Windows Messenger
mspaint = Microsoft Paint
wmplayer = Windows Media Player
rstrui = System Restore
control = Opens the Control Panel
control printers = Opens the Printers Dialog

For Windows XP:

Copy. CTRL+C
Cut. CTRL+X
Paste. CTRL+V
Undo. CTRL+Z
Delete. DELETE
Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. SHIFT+DELETE
Copy selected item. CTRL while dragging an item
Create shortcut to selected item. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item
Rename selected item. F2
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. CTRL+UP ARROW
Highlight a block of text. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys




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Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. SHIFT with any of the arrow keys

Select all. CTRL+A
Search for a file or folder. F3
View properties for the selected item. ALT+ENTER
Close the active item, or quit the active program. ALT+F4
Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. CTRL+F4
Switch between open items. ALT+TAB
Cycle through items in the order they were opened. ALT+ESC
Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop. F6
Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. F4
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. SHIFT+F10
Display the System menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Display the Start menu. CTRL+ESC
Display the corresponding menu. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name
Carry out the corresponding command. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu
Activate the menu bar in the active program. F10
Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. RIGHT ARROW
Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. LEFT ARROW
Refresh the active window. F5
View the folder one level up in My Computer. BACKSPACE
Cancel the current task. ESC
SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

Use these keyboard shortcuts for dialog boxes:


To Press


Move forward through tabs. CTRL+TAB
Move backward through tabs. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Move forward through options. TAB
Move backward through options. SHIFT+TAB
Carry out the corresponding command or select the corresponding option. ALT+Underlined letter
Carry out the command for the active option or button. ENTER
Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box. SPACEBAR
Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons. Arrow keys
Display Help. F1
Display the items in the active list. F4
Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box. BACKSPACE

If you have a Microsoft Natural Keyboard, or any other compatible keyboard that includes the Windows logo key and the Application key , you can use these keyboard shortcuts:

Display or hide the Start menu. WIN Key
Display the System Properties dialog box. WIN Key+BREAK
Show the desktop. WIN Key+D
Minimize all windows. WIN Key+M
Restores minimized windows. WIN Key+Shift+M
Open My Computer. WIN Key+E
Search for a file or folder. WIN Key+F
Search for computers. CTRL+WIN Key+F
Display Windows Help. WIN Key+F1
Lock your computer if you are connected to a network domain, or switch users if you are not connected to a network domain. WIN Key+ L
Open the Run dialog box. WIN Key+R
Open Utility Manager. WIN Key+U

accessibility keyboard shortcuts:


Switch FilterKeys on and off. Right SHIFT for eight seconds
Switch High Contrast on and off. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN
Switch MouseKeys on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK
Switch StickyKeys on and off. SHIFT five times
Switch ToggleKeys on and off. NUM LOCK for five seconds
Open Utility Manager. WIN Key+U

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Monday, November 25, 2013

How to Use a System Repair Disc to Restore Windows


System Repair Disc

If Windows 7 won't start or starts with significant problems, you may need to use the System Repair Disc to fix problems with Windows 7. The System Repair Disc is designed to let you boot up Windows — even if nothing else works — and provides you with several options for repairing your failing system.(Create a System Repair Disc)

 You need to create the system repair disc. If you don’t create one, you limit your recovery options. The system repair disc is not the same thing as the recovery disc that came with your computer. It won’t reinstall Windows 7 and it won’t reformat your computer. It's simply a gateway to Windows' built-in recovery tools.

Insert the System Repair disc in the DVD drive and restart the computer.

If necessary, turn off the power, count to ten, and turn the power back on.

For just a few seconds, the screen displays Press any key to boot from CD or DVD. Press any key. Click Next.


If you aren't quick enough, you'll have to restart the computer again. When Windows is finished loading files, the first System Recover Options dialog box appears. Note: Change the keyboardinput method if US isn't correct.
When System Recover is finished searching for Windows installations, click Next.

Choose Use Recovery Tools That Can Help Fix Problems Starting Windows. Click Next.


Windows will provide several tools that you can use to repair your system, including using thesystem image, if you have one available.

Choose a Recovery Tool:

Choose the tool that best suits your situation. Best recommendation: Use the first three options in the order listed, restarting after each one.

Startup Repair: A good first attempt. Automatically fix problems that are preventing Windows from starting.

System Restore: Restore Windows to an earlier point in time. Choose this option if Windows 7 starts, but something has changed since a recent installation or update. You'll pick a restorepoint based on date and time (start with the most recent). You may lose recent program changes, but not your data.

System Image Recovery: Recover your computer using a system image you created during a backup. Choose this option if the first two don't fix a problem and you have a relatively recent system image.
With System Image Recovery, you will lose data created or changed since the image was created, unless you have that data on a separate device, such as a flash drive.

Windows Memory Diagnostic: Check your computer for memory hardware errors. This diagnostic tool won’t do any damage and might uncover the reason your PC hangs, freezes, or crashes.

Command Prompt: Open a command prompt window. Use this if you’re familiar with typing commands at a prompt.

After using any of these tools, click Restart. Click Shut Down if you've had enough for the time being.


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Thursday, November 21, 2013

How to Create a System Repair Disc for Windows 7


Windows 7

If your computer came with a Windows 7 DVD, you can use that DVD to repair your system, including restoring a system image created in Backup and Restore. If you don’t have a Windows 7 DVD, you need to create a System Repair Disc for this purpose.

Restoring a system image resets everything back to the way the computer was before it crashed. Without a System Repair Disc or the original DVD, you’ll need to start from scratch.

Many computers come with a Restore Disc, which restores your computer to factory condition. A Restore Disc isn't the same as a Windows 7 Repair Disc. You should have both.

1. Open the Start menu and type backup. Choose Backup and Restore.

The Backup and Restore window opens.

Backup and Restore



2. Click the Create a System Repair Disc link.


Backup and Restore

The Create a System Repair Disc dialog box appears.

3. Insert a blank DVD into your DVD drive.

4. Click the Create Disc button.

Windows 7 prepares the System Repair Disc.

5. Click Close twice to exit the dialog boxes.

6. Eject the disc, label it, and put it in a safe place.


Remember to put the disc some place that you’ll be able to find in an emergency.
When the disc is done, Windows 7 may start the Auto Play dialog box. Close Auto Play, if it opens.


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Thursday, September 26, 2013

32-bit and 64-bit

32-bit and 64-bit

Will this 32-bit software run on my 64-bit operating system? Or
Will this 64-bit software run on my computer?
If you've asked these questions then this tutorial should help you to understand the concepts of 32-bit and 64-bit computing. We'll look at your computer system as three parts: the hardware, the operating system and the application programs.

32-bit versus 64-bit

As the number of bits increases there are two important benefits.
More bits mean that data can be processed in larger chunks which also means more accurately.
More bits mean our system can point to or address a larger number of locations in physical memory.
32-bit systems were once desired because they could address (point to) 4 Gigabytes (GB) of memory in one go. Some modern applications require more than 4 GB of memory to complete their tasks so 64-bit systems are now becoming more attractive because they can potentially address up to 4 billion times that many locations.
Since 1995, when Windows 95 was introduced with support for 32-bit applications, most of the software and operating system code has been 32-bit compatible.
Here is the problem, while most of the software available today is 32-bit; the processors we buy are almost all 64-bit.


So how long will the transition from 32-bit to 64-bit systems take?

The main issue is that your computer works from the hardware such as the processor (or CPU, as it is called), through the operating system (OS), to the highest level which your applications is. So the computer hardware is designed first, the matching operating systems are developed, and finally the applications appear.
We can look back at the transition from 16-bit to 32-bit Windows on 32-bit processors. It took 10 years (from 1985 to 1995) to get a 32-bit operating system and even now, more than 15 years later, there are many people still using 16-bit Windows applications on older versions of Windows.
The hardware and software vendors learnt from the previous transition, so the new operating systems have been released at the same time as the new processors. The problem this time is that there haven't been enough 64-bit applications. Ten years after the PC's first 64-bit processors, installs of 64-bit Windows are only now exceeding those of 32-bit Windows. Further evidence of this inertia is that you are probably reading this tutorial because you are looking to install your first 64-bit software.


Your computer system in three parts

32-bit and 64-bit

Now we'll look at those three components of your system. In simple terms they are three layers with the processor or CPU as the central or lowest layer and the application as the outermost or highest layer as shown below:

To run a 64-bit operating system you need support from the lower level: the 64-bit CPU.
To run a 64-bit application you need support from all lower levels: the 64-bit OS and the 64-bit CPU.
This simplification will be enough for us to look what happens when we mix the 32-bit and 64-bit parts. But if you want to understand the issue more deeply then you will also need to consider the hardware that supports the CPU and the device drivers that allow the OS and the applications to interface with the system hardware.


What 32-bit and 64-bit combinations are compatible and will work together?

This is where we get to the practicalities and can start answering common questions.
The general rule is that 32-bit will run on a lower level 64-bit component but 64-bit does not run on a lower level 32-bit component:
A 32-bit OS will run on a 32-bit or 64-bit processor without any problem.
A 32-bit application will run on a 32-bit or 64-bit OS without any problem.
But a 64-bit application will only run on a 64-bit OS and a 64-bit OS will only run on a 64-bit processor.
These two tables illustrate the same rule:


Table 1 — What is compatible if I have a 32-bit CPU?
Processor (CPU)32-bit32-bit32-bit32-bit
Operating System (OS)32-bit32-bit64-bit64-bit
Application Program32-bit64-bit32-bit64-bit
YesNoNoNo


Table 2 — What is compatible if I have a 64-bit CPU?
Processor (CPU)64-bit64-bit64-bit64-bit
Operating System (OS)64-bit64-bit32-bit32-bit
Application Program64-bit32-bit32-bit64-bit
YesYesYesNo

The main reason that 32-bit will always run on 64-bit is that the 64-bit components have been designed to work that way. So the newer 64-bit systems are backward-compatible with the 32-bit systems (which is the main reason most of us haven't moved to 64-bit software).
An example of backward compatibility is Windows 64-bit. It has software called WOW64 that provides compatibility by emulating a 32-bit system. One important point that is made in that article is that it is not possible to install a 32-bit device driver on a 64-bit operating system. This is because device drivers run in parallel to the operating system. The emulation is done at the operating system level so it is available to the higher layer, the application, but it is not available to the device driver which runs on the same level.

Hardware virtualization is the exception to the rule

Another question many people have is whether a 32-bit system can run 64-bit software. As more people are looking to use 64-bit Windows they want to try it out on their existing systems. So we are getting more questions about whether they can run it on their 32-bit processor or under their 32-bit OS.
Following the general rule, we would expect that you cannot run 64-bit software on a 32-bit system. Except that there is one exception called virtualization.
Virtualization creates a virtual system within the actual system. Virtualization can be achieved in hardware or software but it works best if the virtual machine is created in the system hardware. The guest operating system is not aware that there is a host operating system already running. This is the way that a 64-bit operating system can think that it is running on 64-bit hardware without being aware that there is a 32-bit operating system in the mix.
Tables 3 and 4 illustrate the result. Provided that the virtual machine can actually be created and isolated by the vitalizing software then the host OS is effectively removed from the equation, so I've grayed it out. We can now apply the general rules for a non-virtualized system to the three remaining layers.

Table 3 — What is compatible if I have a 32-bit CPU and software
virtualization?
Processor (CPU)32-bit32-bit32-bit32-bit
Host Operating System32-bit32-bit32-bit32-bit
Guest Operating System32-bit32-bit64-bit64-bit
Application Program32-bit64-bit32-bit64-bit
YesNoNoNo


Table 4 — What is compatible if I have a 64-bit CPU and software
virtualization?
Processor (CPU)64-bit64-bit64-bit64-bit
Host Operating System32/64-bit32/64-bit32/64-bit32/64-bit
Guest Operating System64-bit64-bit32-bit32-bit
Application Program64-bit32-bit32-bit64-bit
YesYesYesNo
Before you hurry away to try running 64-bit in a virtual machine, you must check that your computer BIOS supports hardware virtualization. If it does not then hardware virtualization will not work even if the CPU does support it.

Emulation of the 64-bit CPU is not an option

All the feasible configurations that we have looked at so far have the processors (CPUs) running software that use the instruction set that is native to that processor. Running 64-bit software on a 32-bit processor doesn't work because the 64-bit instructions are not native to a 32-bit processor. But what if I could emulate a 64-bit processor using 32-bit software?
It is theoretically possible but practically impossible to emulate a 64-bit processor while running software on a 32-bit processor. Even if you can get non-native 64-bit emulation to work, the virtual machine that duplicates a 64-bit CPU would run very slowly because every 64-bit instruction has to be trapped and handled by the emulator. 64-bit memory pointers also have to be converted to work within the 32-bit address space.
Furthermore, my understanding is that the x86 (32-bit) processors used in PCs and Apple Macs are not able to completely emulate the x64 (64-bit) instruction set. Some 64-bit instructions cannot be trapped by the emulator. This causes the system to crash when the x86 processor tried to run those x64 instructions.

Answers to common questions about 32-bit and 64-bit systems

Will a 64-bit CPU run a 32-bit program on a 64-bit version of an OS?
Yes it will. 64-bit systems are backward-compatible with their 32-bit counterparts.

Will a 64-bit OS run a 32-bit application on a 64-bit processor?
Yes it will. Again, this is because of backward compatibility.

Can 64-bit applications contain 32-bit code?
Yes, many times 64-bit software will contain portions of 32-bit code.
Similarly 32-bit software (usually very old programs) can have some code in 16-bit which is why those 32-bit applications will usually fail to run properly on a 64-bit OS.

Can 16-bit applications or code run on 64-bit systems?
No, as we said previously. 16-bit code will NOT run on 64-bit OS because the designers did not provide backward-compatibility. This is one reason why some 32-bit programs will not work on 64-bit operating systems.

Can a 64-bit CPU with a 32-bit host OS run a virtual machine (VM) for a 64-bit guest OS?
Yes. It all depends upon the level of virtualization.
With software virtualization it is hardly likely to work, or if it does work it may be very slow.
Hardware virtualization will need to be supported by the CPU (e.g. with Intel-VT or AMD-V) and the BIOS.

Answers to common questions about 32- and 64-bit Windows


Can I run Windows 2000 and Windows XP on a 64-bit CPU, and use old software?
Yes, a 32-bit OS (Windows 2000 or XP) will run on a 64-bit processor. You should also be able to run older 32-bit software on a 64-bit OS.

Is a Windows Vista or Windows 7 license key valid for both 32-bit and 64-bit versions?
Yes, unless you have an OEM version. If it was installed on your computer when you bought it and you only have one Windows disk then it is almost certainly an OEM version and you will have to buy the other bit version if you want it. If you have two disks, one for 32-bit Windows and one for 64-bit Windows, then you have a non-OEM version so you get to choose which bit version you will use without having to buy another license. 
Remember, if you have only bought one license then, even if you have both bit versions on disk, you are only licensed to install and run one version on one computer.

How do I migrate  my 32-bit system to 64-bit Windows?
There is no upgrade path from 32-bit to 64-bit Windows only from 64-bit Windows. You will almost certainly have to do a clean install of your 64-bit operating system, copy back your data files, and reinstall your 32-bit applications.
If you want to keep your old install then you can try dual booting or virtualization.

How do I run 32-bit software once I have installed 64-bit Windows?
Windows 7 64-bit provides a 32-bit compatibility mode called WOW32 (Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit) that should run most if not all your applications..
If you have 32-bit application you want to run from the Command Prompt then you need to use the WOW64 version of cmd.exe. At the Start Menu select Run and enter the following command. Note that the %systemroot% variable points to your Windows folder so this will work even if Windows is not installed on C: drive:
%systemroot%\SysWOW64\cmd.exe

If your application won't run under Windows 64-bit then try XP Mode, Windows Virtual PC, or other virtualization solution. Be aware that XP Mode reduces your system security and so it should be used as a last resort.

How can I tell if my application is 32-bit or 64-bit?
There are a number of indicators of the bit type for your program but they are not definitive as you will see if you use guidelines like the following.
Windows installs your programs to these folders on your system drive:
o '\Program Files' for 64-bit programs
o '\Program Files (x86)' for 32-bit programs
In Task Manager, 32-bit processes will usually have a suffix of '*32' and 64-bit processes will not.

The reason that these indicators cannot be relied upon relates to the way 64-bit Windows installs software. 64-bit install packages usually install 64-bit applications or a mixture of 32- and 64-bit components but can even install only 32-bit components.

What determines where a component is installed is the registry setting for that component rather than the setting for the install package. Windows also assumes that all components are 32-bit unless told otherwise. This means that a 64-bit component not flagged as 64-bit will install to 32-bit folders and 32-bit registry keys but will execute as 64-bit.

What are the differences between Windows 32-bit and 64-bit?
The  physical  and logical differences between each version of desktop Windows as shown in Table 5. This table illustrates the progressive improvement of Windows 64-bit and indicates that Windows has a long way to go before it exhausts the capabilities of 64-bit processors.
Many of the limits in the 64-bit versions of Windows are design choices rather than limitations of the 64-bit CPUs. The number of physical processors is the most obvious as Windows Server editions support many more.
Hardware is also limited by design. For example, while 64-bit AMD and Intel CPUs use 64-bit  memory pointers, the supporting chipsets only use a 52-bit physical address space (4 Petabytes) and a 48-bit virtual memory space (256 Terabytes). This is presently more than sufficient because Windows 7 64-bit only allows 192 GB of physical memory and 16 Terabytes (44-bits) of virtual memory.

Table 5: Physical and Logical limits for Windows Versions

Numbers in parentheses indicate extended settings that are not the default and require compatible hardware

Version:XPVista7
Version Bits:326432643264
System:
Physical Processors222222
Logical Processors3264326432256
System Cache1 GB1,024 GB1 (2) GB1,024 GB1 (2) GB1,024 GB
Physical Memory4 GB128 GB4 GB128 GB4 GB192 GB
Virtual Memory4 GB16,384 GB4 GB16,384 GB4 GB16,384 GB
Kernel1 (2) GB8 GB2 GB8 GB2 GB8 GB
User Process:
Physical Memory2 (3) GB2 (4) GB2 (3) GB8 GB2 (4) GB8 GB
Virtual Memory2 (3) GB2 (8,192) GB2 (3) GB2 (8,192) GB2 (4) GB2 (8,192) GB

Source 



Monday, September 16, 2013

speed up your computer - Windows 7


Using Windows ReadyBoost to Increase Performance in  Windows 7

Readyboost

What is ReadyBoost


ReadyBoost is a feature of Windows Vista and Windows 7 and windows 8 that uses a USB flash drive for caching.  This allows Windows Vista or Windows 7 to service random disk reads with performance that is typically 80-100 times faster than random reads from traditional hard drives.

For a USB flash drive to be compatible, it must conform to the following requirements:

 The device should have an access time of 1 ms or less.
 The capacity of the USB flash drive must be at least 256MB (250 after formatting).
 The device must be capable of 2.5 MB/s read speeds for 4 KB random reads spread uniformly across the     entire device and 1.75 MB/s write speeds for 512KB random writes spread uniformly across the device
 The device must have at least 235MB of free space

ReadyBoost supported features/capacity:

 On Windows Vista, the largest cache file size is 4GB
 On Windows 7, the largest cache file size is 256GB (can span up to 8 flash drives).
 NTFS, FAT32 and exFAT are supported.
 The recommended amount of flash memory to use for Windows ReadyBoost acceleration is one to three      times the amount of random access memory (RAM) installed in your computer.

To turn ReadyBoost on or off

Plug a flash drive  into your computer.

In the Autoplay dialog box, under General options, click Speed up my system.

In the Properties dialog box, click the ReadyBoost tab, and then do one of the following:

To turn ReadyBoost off, click Do not use this device.

To use the maximum available space on the flash drive  for ReadyBoost, click Dedicate this device to ReadyBoost. Windows will leave any files already stored on the device, but it'll use the rest to boost your system speed.

To use less than the maximum available space on the device for ReadyBoost, click Use this device, and then move the slider to choose the amount of available space on the device you want to use.

Click OK.

Windows ReadyBoost

Move the slider to choose how much space you want to designate for boosting your system speed.


Friday, September 6, 2013

Windows 7 Hard Disk Check




Hard Drive



Sometimes your computer is noticeably slower or programs "hang" when you access certain files. This problem might occur because there are errors on your hard disk drive.

You can troubleshoot the problem by using the Disk Check tool in Windows 7. Disk Check can identify and automatically correct file system errors and make sure that you can continue to load and write data from the hard disk. You can use Disk Check in Windows 7 not only for local hard drives, but also for removable media such as USB memory sticks or memory cards.

  Please make sure that you close all open programs and files before you start the disk check. 

1. Click the Start Windows icon. 

2. Click Open computer

3. Right-click the drive that you want to check. 

4. Click Properties >  Click the Tools tab >  Click the Check now button.

5. In the Check Disk <disk name> window, select the automatically fix file system errors check box.

Note If you want to perform a detailed test of the hard drive, you can select the Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors check box. You should do that in the justified suspicion of existing hardware error in any case. But please note that the operation can then take a long time. For a first routine check, we recommend that you do not select this option.
  
6. Click Start.

7. If the drive that you want to check is currently in use and it is your system drive, you will see a dialog box with a warning message. In this case, click Schedule disk check.

8. Exit all open programs, and then restart your computer. The checking will start automatically before next Windows startup and display the results when completed.

9. If you are not checking the system drive, you do not have to turn off the computer. However, the selected drive may also be in use. In this case, you receive a message. After you have saved all files and close all open programs, click Force a dismount

13. The checking starts immediately. After it is completed, the results will be displayed. 



Wednesday, September 4, 2013

No sound in Windows

No sound in Windows

Check hardware

Many sound problems are caused by hardware that isn't set up properly. This step covers checking your sound card, plugging cables into the correct locations, making sure the hardware has power, and checking the volume.

1. Check your sound card

Check to make sure your computer has a sound card, or sound processor, and it's working properly.
1. Open Device Manager by clicking Start, pointing to Control Panel, clicking System, clicking the               Hardware tab, and then, clicking Device Manager.
2. Double-click Sound, video and game controllers to expand that category. If a sound card is listed, you         have one installed. If no sound card is listed, check the information that came with your computer to see         if there's supposed to be a sound card installed. If there should be a sound card installed, you'll need to         install one according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Notes

If you think you have a sound card installed but you don't see it under the Sound, video and game controllers category, expand the Other devices category and check the devices listed there.
Laptops don't usually have sound cards. Instead, they have integrated sound processors, which appear         in the same category in Device Manager.
If there's a yellow question mark next to the name of the sound card in Device Manager, there might be a problem.
1. Right-click the name of the sound card, and then click Properties.
2. Click the General tab, and then look in the Device status box to identify problems with the sound               card.
If there's a problem, you might need a new driver for your sound card. For more information, see Step 3: Update drivers.

2. Check if the cables are connected properly

Speakers and headphones

If you're using external speakers, make sure that they are correctly connected to the computer.
Many computers have three or more jacks that connect to a sound card or sound processor, including a microphone jack, line-in jack, and line-out jack. Your speakers should be plugged in to the line-out jack. If you're not sure which jack this is, try plugging your speakers in to each of the jacks to see if any of them produce sound.

Picture of microphone jack, line-in jack, and line-out jack

Microphone, line-in, and line-out jacks on a typical computer
If you're using headphones, make sure they aren't plugged into the line out (headphone) jack of your sound card or computer (unless you want to be listening with headphones rather than speakers). When you plug in headphones, most computers automatically cut the sound to the speakers.

USB audio devices

If you’re using a USB audio device and also have an internal audio device installed, try these basic troubleshooting steps:
Unplug the USB audio device and restart your audio program. Test for sound using the internal audio             device. If you hear sound, there might be problems with the USB audio driver or with Windows not               using the USB audio device as the default audio device.
Close all audio programs, unplug the USB audio device, wait for the USB driver to be uninstalled (this           should happen fairly quickly), plug the USB audio device back in to the USB port, wait for the driver to         load, and then start the audio program and check for sound.
Check that you have the correct audio device set as the default in Windows and in the program.
Check the audio device manufacturer’s website for updated drivers.

3. Check power and volume

If you have speakers, make sure they're plugged into a working power source and turned on.
Make sure that your speaker volume or headphone volume isn't muted or turned down too low. This is particularly important for laptops, which often have small speakers that can be hard to hear.
1. Click Start, point to Control panel, and then click Sounds and Audio Devices.
2. Under Device volume, move the slider to the right to increase the volume.
        Make sure the Mute checkbox isn't selected.
3. Click Speaker Volume, and make sure the sliders aren't set to Low.

Note

Some laptops have an external volume control on the outside of the case. If you're using a laptop, check the external volume control to make sure it's not turned all the way down.
In some cases you might have several volume controls to check. For example, if you're using Windows Media Player it has its own volume control, Windows has a volume control, and your external speakers have their own volume control. If any of these volume controls are set to their lowest setting, you won't hear any sound.

Update drivers

For Windows to recognize your sound card or sound processor, you need a compatible driver. Most sound cards and sound processors require driver software to work properly. Outdated, incompatible, or damaged sound card drivers can disrupt communication between the computer and the sound card.
If you recently upgraded from one version of Windows to another, it's possible that the current sound card driver was designed for the previous version of Windows. If you've had recent power outages, viruses, or other computer problems, it's possible that the drivers have become damaged. Downloading and installing the latest sound card driver for your sound card can help resolve these types of problems.
Here are three ways to find and install a driver:
Use Windows Update. You might need to set Windows Update to automatically download and install recommended updates. Installing any important, recommended, and optional updates can update system features and other software that might help fix your sound problems.
Install software from the device manufacturer. If your device came with a disc, that disc might               contain software that installs a driver for the device.
Download and install the driver yourself. You can search for a driver on the manufacturer's                     website. Try this if Windows Update can't find a driver for your device and the device didn't come with         software that installs a driver.

Follow the steps below to update drivers.

To automatically update drivers using Windows Update

1. Open Automatic Updates by clicking Start, pointing to Control Panel, and clicking Automatic Updates.
2. Click Automatic, and then select the day and time to download updates.
3. Click Apply.

Notes

Windows will automatically download available updates and drivers on the next day and time you selected. Check to see if your sound problems are resolved after that first update takes place.

To download and install a driver yourself

If Windows can't find a driver for your sound card or sound processor, and the device didn't come with driver software, you can look for a driver on the manufacturer's website. Driver updates are often available in the support section of such websites.
To locate the driver, find the manufacturer and model name or number of your sound card, and then visit the Hardware and software vendor contact information website. Once you find your manufacturer, go to its website and locate and download the latest driver for your sound card.
If you can't find the manufacturer and model name or number of your sound card, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then click Run.
2. Type dxdiag, and then click OK.
3. Click the Sound tab.
4. In the Device section, next to Name, copy or write down the name of the device. In the Drivers                section, next to Provider, copy or write down the manufacturer of the device.
5. Click Exit.

Once you know the name and manufacturer of your sound card, you can look for a driver on the device manufacturer's website. Driver updates are often available in the support section of such websites.
If you find an updated driver, follow the installation instructions on the website. Most drivers are self-installing—after you download them, you usually double-click the file to begin the installation, and then the driver installs itself on your computer.



Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Windows 8 system requirements

Windows 8

If you want to run Windows 8 on your PC, here's what it takes:


Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster with support for PAE, NX, and SSE2

RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)

Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)

Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM driver

Additional requirements to use certain features:

To use touch, you need a tablet or a monitor that supports multitouch

To access the Windows Store and to download and run apps, you need an active Internet connection and a screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768

To snap apps, you need a screen resolution of at least 1366 x 768

Internet access (ISP fees might apply)

Secure boot requires firmware that supports UEFI v2.3.1 Errata B and has the Microsoft Windows Certification Authority in the UEFI signature database

Some games and programs might require a graphics card compatible with DirectX 10 or higher for optimal performance

Microsoft account required for some features

Watching DVDs requires separate playback software

Windows Media Center license sold separately

BitLocker To Go requires a USB flash drive (Windows 8 Pro only)

BitLocker requires either Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 1.2 or a USB flash drive (Windows 8 Pro only)

Client Hyper-V requires a 64-bit system with second level address translation (SLAT) capabilities and additional 2 GB of RAM (Windows 8 Pro only)

A TV tuner is required to play and record live TV in Windows Media Center (Windows 8 Pro Pack and Windows 8 Media Center Pack only)

Free Internet TV content varies by geography, some content might require additional fees (Windows 8 Pro Pack and Windows 8 Media Center Pack only)

Source


DirectX

Microsoft

What are the different parts of DirectX?

Direct3D. This helps make three-dimensional animation possible on your computer monitor. Direct3D is designed to provide a powerful link between your computer's video card and software programs that can render three-dimensional (3 D) objects. The faster your computer can process animation, the more realistic the 3 D objects, light, and motion on your monitor will appear to be.

DirectDraw. This helps produce two-dimensional (2 D) visual effects. Your computer's video card and many software programs use DirectDraw to communicate with one another before sending the finished visual image to the monitor. Computer games, 2 D graphics packages, and Windows system features all use DirectDraw.
DirectSound. This boosts the performance of audio effects on your computer and makes many subtle effects in audio mixing and playback possible. It provides a link between software programs and the hardware on your computer. DirectSound provides multimedia software programs, such as games and movies, with hardware acceleration, mixing capabilities, and access to the sound card.

Do I need DirectX?

Yes. DirectX allows you to use multimedia software with complex sounds or moving images. DirectX is included with this version of Windows and with most of the games that require it.

Where can I get DirectX?

DirectX comes standard with this version of Windows, and also comes with most of the games that require it.

Which version of DirectX do I have?

At a minimum on this version of Windows, you have DirectX 10.

To check which version of DirectX you have

1. Open DirectX Diagnostic Tool by clicking the Start button , typing dxdiag in the Search box, and then pressing ENTER.
2. Click the System tab, and then, under System Information, check the version number.

Can I uninstall DirectX?

No. It's an integral part of the Windows operating system and cannot be removed.

To run DirectX Diagnostic Tool

Open DirectX Diagnostic Tool by clicking the Start button  , typing dxdiag in the Search box, and then pressing ENTER.

Using DirectX Diagnostic Tool to diagnose problems

Here are some of the things you should be looking for:

Lack of hardware acceleration. Some programs run very slowly or not at all unless Microsoft DirectDraw or Direct3D hardware acceleration is available. Click the Display tab, and then under DirectX Features, check to see whether DirectDraw, Direct3D, or AGP Texture acceleration is marked Not Available. If so, you might consider upgrading your hardware. You might also need to turn on graphics acceleration.

To turn on graphics acceleration

1. Open Display Settings by clicking the Start button  , clicking Control Panel, clicking Appearance and Personalization, clicking Personalization, and then clicking Display Settings.
2. Click Display Settings, and then click Advanced Settings.
3. Click the Troubleshoot tab, and then click Change Settings.   If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
4. Move the Hardware Acceleration slider to Full.

Devices are not connected. If a joystick or other input device fails to respond, it may not be properly set up. Make sure the device is present on the Input tab of DirectX Diagnostic Tool. If not, reinstall the game controller or input device by unplugging it and then plugging it back in.

Unsigned drivers are present. Microsoft has not tested unsigned drivers for full compatibility with the latest version of DirectX. We recommend that you use drivers that are digitally signed by Microsoft Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL).